Tips On Winter Flying
by Bryan Neville
Reprinted with permission from FAA Aviation News
Winter flying poses unique
challenges for the general aviation pilot. Here are a few ideas to consider for
a safe flight.
Careful consideration must be
given to several areas before "Old Man Winter" actually arrives. Installation of
winter baffles, removal of wheel pants, grade of oil, condition of hoses,
clamps, fittings and seals, condition of batteries, and tension of control
cables are all items to review before the cold temperatures of winter cause
difficulties. The route of flight itself may prove to be the most important
consideration. Do you plan to fly through a valley or over mountains? Can you
follow a well-traveled road or will you chance flying across wilderness
territory? The difference may only be minutes, but may prove life saving if you
have to make an off-airport landing.
If you have or can use a
heated hangar, your preflight will not be much different than in the summer
months. If your airplane is out in the cold, you may have a tendency to rush
your preflight. DON'T! If you park a warm airplane outside with less than full
tanks, condensation of water may occur. Be sure to carefully sump each tank.
Preheat is a good idea not
only for the engine, but also for the cockpit. If you use a heater be watchful
for the danger of fire; have a fire extinguisher handy. Don't tune your radios
before they have had a chance to warn up. Cold temperatures have been known to
cause instruments, buttons, and knobs to stick or break.
Be sure to remove all snow,
frost, and ice. If you cannot blow it off yourself, don't count on the takeoff
roll to do it for you. If the aircraft surface is warm and you let it sit in
falling snow, the snow may melt and refreeze and then this ice is covered with
new-fallen snow. Always check.
During engine starting, there
is a tendency to over-prime which results in washed-down cylinder walls. This
can also result in fires under the engine cowling. This is not a pleasant way to
start a skiing vacation. Read and follow the manufacturer's suggestions for cold
weather starting. It's always a good idea to ask pilots who live and fly in the
cold climate for ideas. After the engine starts, the use of carburetor heat may
assist in proper fuel vaporization until the engine develops sufficient heat.
TAXI AND TAKEOFF
The need for braking and/or
sharp turns while taxiing should be minimized. Taxi speeds should be slow enough
to allow for every contingency. Skiing into a ditch is not only embarrassing but
can also bend metal. Cold weather can cause "below sea level" density altitudes.
You should be aware of engine power, particularly with turbo or supercharged
engines. Don't over-boost. During climb-out, be aware of cylinder head
temperatures. Because of winter baffling, you may need to climb at a faster
Winter weather is very
changeable. Always obtain a weather briefing and always file a flight plan. You
should keep your radios on and listen on a commonly used frequency for your
area. Flight Watch on 122.0 is always a good one. Flight following with center
is also a good idea.
Carburetor ice generally forms
in temperatures between 32 and 80 degrees F, if humidity is 50% or more. If
visible moisture is present, ice will form at temperatures between 15 and 32
degrees F. Winter flying also involves the use of cabin heaters; be watchful for
the signs of carbon monoxide poisoning. And last, but not least, do not continue
VFR flight into adverse weather conditions. The aviation statistics are full of
pilots who thought they could. Don't become a statistic.
During descent be watchful for
signs of carburetor ice. It is better to carry a little power during the
descent. You may need to use flaps and/or gear to keep speeds reasonable. Be
careful you don't descend into low visibility conditions, such as fog or low
Landing at a busy airport is
generally safer because the landing conditions can be passed from
pilot-to-pilot. Again, be aware that braking may be minimal or non-existent.
Some items to consider are:
top off the tanks to forestall water condensation and install engine and pitot
covers, wing covers (if you have them), and control locks.
Always file a flight plan and
keep it updated. Don't file a round robin flight plan; it covers too much
territory. Experts say that survival is 80% mental, 10% equipment, and 10%
skills. Plan ahead. File a flight plan. Expect to be found. Stay dry, don't eat
snow, and stay warm. Carry a blanket, a sleeping bag, a first aid kit, matches
and a copy of your filed flight plan. Do all this and you'll have an excellent
chance of greeting your rescuers with a smile.
Bryan Neville is an Aviation Safety Inspector at
the Salt Lake City FSDO. This article is reprinted from Plane Talk, the
FAA Northwest Mountain Region's Safety Program newsletter.